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2015下半年家居行业新政策大盘点

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 全国住房租赁市场发展滞后 租金涨幅低于房价 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

深圳拟调整高龄老人津贴发放标准

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

昨日发布的央行数据显示,中国外汇储备上月出现有记录以来第三大单月降幅。这重燃了人们对于中国遭遇资本外流的担忧,此前中国外汇储备似乎企稳。
在即将结束的2014年,标普500指数再次实现亮眼增长,而那些本欲跑赢该指数的基金经理们,表现则没那么出色。Lipper公司称,截止11月底,85%的活跃股票型共同基金经理业绩低于标普500指数。而在正常的年份里,跑赢该指数的基金经理比例是今年的两倍,也就是说,通常只有约三分之二的基金表现不如标普500指数。Lipper公司称,这是30年来活跃基金经理相对大盘表现最差的一年。
虽然她五个月之前才刚学会走路,但是这个被人们称作“宝贝碧昂斯”的小宝宝已经开始在各种盛会的舞台上展露风采了。
虽然出现上述下跌,但保费收入同比增长37.3%,至1.88万亿元人民币,保险业资产总量达到14.27万亿元人民币,增长了15.42%。
自信和迷茫只有一线之隔,而现在的科比·布莱恩特正横跨在这两端。这是在周二与勇士的比赛中我们唯一可以得出的结论。这位湖人队的超级明星打出了自己职业生涯当中,单场至少五次投篮的比赛中最糟糕的一场。
In 2005, Davidson found herself constantly picking up sippy cups her one-year-old son Jake would toss to the ground. She went to Target, bought a sewing machine, and created the SippiGrip, a leash-like contraption for a sippy cup. Her entrepreneurial dreams were slowed, however -- she was recruited by Microsoft to join the HR team working with its X-Box Group. But in 2007, she launched the SippiGrip at a national trade show. Fortuitously, Target approached her to join its 2008 Parent Invented Products Program and today, Davidson's BooginHead line is sold by retailers like Walmart, Babies "R" Us, and Amazon.com.
纸筒插秧机

About 200 million migrants, half of whom are women, sent $445 billion to their families in Asia, Latin America and Africa in 2016, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) said last Wednesday.
Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump can look forward to a presidential salary of $400,000 if they win in November.
sincerely
在新的领导层刚刚接手之际,中国的政治体制会继续将注意力放在保持稳定上,但经济弹性的降低,可能挫败北京方面在这方面的意图。
Ninety percent of the students believe their universities' guidance on entrepreneurship would help their future businesses. In addition, they professed appreciation for policies intended to encourage entrepreneurship.

Footnotes

  • 恒指收涨0.5% 券商、保险股集体上扬
  • Dealers: Car dealers work toward reducing the paperwork involved in buying a car and the hours it takes to fill it out. That will give them more time to devote to upselling add-ons such as extended warranties, paint and fabric protection, and rust-proofing.

Don't Make Yourself Too Comfortable
v. 强调,着重
Faber laughs at Bernanke's remark that the economy would be strong enough later this year so he could take his foot off the gas, that is begin 'tapering, or scaling back it's stimulative quantitative easing (QE) program later this year.' Yes, laughed.
4.Avoid micromanaging
根据美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)的数据,税收增加与支出削减将2013年的经济增速拉低了约1.5个百分点。许多预测人士认为,2014年财政因素对经济增速的拖累幅度将是2013年的三分之一或更低。牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)的美国经济学家达科(Gregory Daco)称,今年政治方面的确定性更高。
马克?高恩洛夫(Mark Gongloff)在《赫芬顿邮报》(Huffington Post)上警告说:“一季度美国经济增长的大幅降级揭示了经济体挥之不去的疲弱,暴露了华盛顿执迷于财政紧缩的愚蠢,并给美联储最新的乐观打了一记响亮的耳光。”而随着政治局势的恶化,增长速度还会进一步放缓。

长租公寓需求上涨 品质参差不齐

References

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