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大佬抢搭楼市新政头班车 孙宏斌暗示全面涨价

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 全国一季度个人房贷增1万亿 或是房价暴涨推手 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

衡阳官方:撤销昨日网传暂停《规范市城区新建商品房销售价格行为》文件

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

现在是时候制订新年旅游计划了!有“背包客圣经”之称的《孤独星球》于近日向寻找地美价廉好去处的人们推荐了2017年性价比最高的旅游胜地清单。让我们一起来看看吧。
When reflecting on the year in film, moviegoers often remember strong performances, or they might consider how a movie worked as a narrative, the emotions it evoked, what chances it took.
中国台湾台东——这座连接了无人小岛三仙岛和台东县的人行桥非常有名,因为它由8座拱桥相连而成。在《孤独星球》2016年“亚洲最佳景点”中,这座沿海小县城也名列其中。
“考虑到8月贬值行动引发负面反应,我们认为近期不会出台进一步的贬值,”常驻香港的牛津经济研究院经济学家高路易(Louis Kuijs)表示。“我们认为10月的贸易数据将继续(使政府)面临压力,要求其在国内出台更多宽松政策。”
10.《美国骗局》
"It became an issue about so many things, such as the environment, energy, workplace disasters and the role of big government. It became a lightning rodfor peoples' anxieties," she explained.
foundation

e出,pi,sode与sell的过去试sold发音一样:出门把pi卖了,这绝对是人生的一个插曲。
在过去三年里,夏威夷航空公司的航班延误率只有6.92%,几乎是排名第二的阿拉斯加航空公司的一半——这家公司的航班延误率达到11.27%。
The research comes at a time of increasing anti-China rhetoric in US politics, and ahead of three politically sensitive anti-dumping cases this summer against Chinese steel imports that could result in the US imposing punitive duties of as much as 500 per cent.
由于电影业采取了更为市场化的改革措施,中国的票房总额在过去几十年里从10亿元人民币增长到了400亿元人民币。
It was the fastest growth rate among the top 10 countries on the EPO's patent-filing league table.

Footnotes

  • 毕业租房要防“坑”
  • 不会。结束罗伯特穆加贝(Robert Mugabe)长达37年的执政(军方在这件事上也帮了点忙)后,埃默森姆南加古瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)承诺在2018年举行自由选举。这引出了一个问题:他可能会输掉大选。他至少要装作选举是公平的,因为他需要政治献金来扭转经济。这将意味着要推行选举改革——可能会让其不受欢迎的非洲民族联盟-爱国阵线(Zanu-PF)输掉选举。即使姆南加古瓦准备好在选举中赌一把,还不清楚军方愿不愿意。已经把自己的人推上台的津巴布韦将军们,不太可能会容许公众再把他踢下去。

Q=Dd[(U=ze~+vR_uAR%
周三,北京市发改委主任卢彦在新闻发布会上说:“我们将会在通州开展297个项目,例如建设地铁线和高速路及改善生态环境。”
Paddington 2
extravagant
狄娜莎(Tinashe)与德文戴·西尼斯(Devonté Hynes),《打赌》(Bet), RCA
10. A bad marriage can lead to an early death

新标准严限木家具甲醛释放量 检测后家具不被破坏

References

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